Where are the brave, feminist women and men who helped to bring down Mubarak in Egypt, and who have long been agitating against Saleh in Yemen, now? About a quarter of the million protesters who brought down the Egyptian dictator were women. Tawakul Karman, who has led anti-government protests at Sana’a University for years, voices the concerns of progressive Yemeni women. Time Magazine and The Guardian call her the “head of the Yemeni protest movement,” but what power does she really have? Will the men–and so far in Egypt they are all men–who rise to power because of these women value or represent their concerns? To ask this question is not simply to inquire about politics in the Middle East, but also to consider how deeply entrenched misogynist attitudes and customs will influence the new states to come.
Nesrine Malik, writing for Altmuslimah, argues that the few women who have been featured as central to the Arab uprisings have been “tokenized” and do not represent any genuine egalitarian development in the Middle East:
While the prominence of women in the revolutions has been moving, there is a psychology behind celebrating and glorifying women’s political activity when it is part of a popular push. In these times women are almost tokenised by men as the ultimate downtrodden victims, the sign that things are desperate, that even members of the fairer sex are leaving their hearths and taking to the streets. The perception isn’t that women are fighting for their own rights, but merely that they are underwriting the revolution by bringing their matronly dignity to the crowd like some mascot
It was not a good sign when, on February 11, the day Mubarak fell, groups of men in Tahrir square groped numerous female protesters, and a gang of thugs from the crowd raped CBS journalist Lara Logan.
It was also not good when the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, which took over, appointed an all-male panel of legal experts to revise the Egyptian constitution. A broad coalition of women’s groups immediately demanded that women have a greater part in planning the future state and that at least one woman lawyer be appointed to the panel, but their concerns were ignored. On March 8, International Women’s Day, thousands of Egyptian women marched in Tahrir Square. Instead of being celebrated for their heroic role in bringing down an oppressive regime, they were assaulted hordes of hostile men, who soon outnumbered them, shouting insults and commanding them to “Go home, where you belong.” Groups of men attacked and beat many female protesters and chased them down the streets.
Egypt and Yemen are ranked 125 and 134 out of 134 countries in a World Economic Forum report on the status of women. Forty-two per cent of Egyptian and 57 per cent of Yemeni women are illiterate. Genital mutilation is still practiced in rural parts of Egypt. Women occupied 8 of 454 seats in Parliament in Egypt and no seats in Yemen’s government. Egyptian men freely grope, harrass, and insult women on the streets without fear of punishment. The Egyptian Center for Women’s Rights reported in 2008 that the majority of women had been harrassed, most frequently by state security officers.
Amnesty International reports that the Yemeni women “are valued as half the worth of men when they testify in court or when their families are compensated if they are murdered.” Feminists have recently called for and end to the hideous practice of forcing girls into marriage at very young ages, sometimes as young as 8. Last year a 12-year-old died from injuries sustained when her 30 year-old husband forced himself on her. Another, 13, bled to death after her husband tied her up and raped her. Predictably, top Yemeni clerics have denounced those who have called for a ban on the practice as apostates.
The recent abominable treatment of a very brave Libyan woman, whom Muammar el-Qaddaff’s forces raped, then abducted, isolated, and interrogated for days, has highlighted discriminatory attitudes in that part of the world as well. The New York Times reports that
Like many traditionalist countries in the region, Libyans often treat rape as a crime against the honor of a woman or her family, rather than as an attack on the woman herself. In some families, a girl or woman who has been raped is cast out or shunned.
The change in the Egyptian regime so far has not made women any safer.
On March 9 the military cleared Tahrir Square of protesters and took at least 18 women into custody at an annex to the Cairo Museum. There soldiers beat or strip-searched these women while other men watched and took photographs. They also forced the women to submit to “virginity tests” and threatened those “not found to be virgins” with prostitution charges. One woman found not to be a virgin by this humiliating “test” said soldiers afterwards gave her electric shocks.
Amnesty International has described these forced “virginity checks” as torture designed to degrade women because they are women and called for all medical personel in Egypt to refuse to administer these tests.
Journalist Rasha Azeb, whom the military detained, testified that soldiers handcuffed, beat, and insulted her. Before she was released, she heard the screams of the other women being given electric shocks and beaten.
17 women, including 20-year old Salwa Hosseini, were taken to a military prison in Heikstep, where guards tortured them further. Ms. Hosseini told Amnesty International that
she was made, with the other women, to take off all her clothes to be searched by a female prison guard, in a room with two open doors and a window. During the strip search, Salwa Hosseini said male soldiers were looking into the room and taking pictures of the naked women.
Let us remember that the men who did this were not working for Mubarak, although such abuses certainly took place under his watch. These events took place under the jurisdiction of the provisional government. Will they continue to occur? Who will stop them? Will they prompt Egyptians to vote for a more religious order, a rule of Shariah law?
Egyptian women are incredibly strong and determined. Witness Dr. Nawal El Sadaawi, the determined feminist who founded Global Solidarity for Secular Society and who has been working to liberate women for more than fifty years. Dr. Sadaawi argues that women need more than what passes for “democracy” in the modern world. Women will only be free when the underlying roots of misogyny are broken apart and exposed to the light, where they will wither away. Until men stop learning to demean, degrade, and condescend to women, the political systems that come into place will perpetuate these practices.
Sexism–prejudice–the unconscious or conscious belief that women do not have the same rights to self-determination, to subjecthood, to speaking out, to being visible, to making choices about their own bodies, to moving through public space independently, that men enjoy–this is the underlying cancer that destroys all societies.
Androcentrism, the mistaken belief that the world centers around men and that men should be in charge of women, is at the root of all other forms of oppression, because sexual difference is the first difference, the foundation of the awareness of self and other. Masculinism is a pernicious an evil in the European and American West as it is in the Arab world, and this is why feminists across the globe have reached out to one another.
Until we can learn to live with one another’s differences, whatever they may be (and they might be different ways of being male, different ways of being female, different ways of being sexual, different ways of interpreting anatomies and proclivities), until we can learn to stop forcing human beings to accept extremely rigid and narrow sexual roles (all women must…and all men will….), we will not be free.
The first step towards freedom, real liberty for women and for men, is to separate the state from the church, because nearly all world religions perpetuate the false belief that men are superior to women. But as we have seen under Mubarak and Saleh and under every US president, setting up a secular government is not in itself enough to eradicate widespread prejudice and violence against women.
The only thing that will bring about the kind of change that we all desperately need is a feminist consciousness and a dedicated belief in the political, economic, psychological, intellectual, and spiritual equality of women. The revolutionary action that thousands of Egyptian and Yemeni women have taken in the past months has done a lot to remind women–and women are the ones who most of all need to believe, to embrace this truth–that they are inherently as valuable as human beings as men, and that all women and all men, including gay and transgender and bisexual and cross-dressing women and men, possess the same rights to self-determination and social power as the dominant, heterosexual men who currently dominate global politics.
The argument I am making here should be clear: thousands of lion-hearted women and feminist men have stood up to oppression in general, and against women in particular, across the Arab world. It is wonderful to see Dr. Saadawi and Ms. Karman get the recognition they deserve after their years of struggle against and persecution by their governments. I also salute Saida Sadouni, the Tunisian feminist “widely hailed as the mother of Tunisia’s revolution, a living record of her country’s modern history and its struggle for emancipation” and agree with Soumaya Ghanoushi, a writer for the Guardian who argues that Arab women have shattered Western prejudices of submissive, veiled women and
refuse to be treated with contempt, kept in isolation, or be taken by the hand, like a child, and led on the road to emancipation. They are taking charge of their own destinies, determined to liberate themselves as they liberate their societies from dictatorship. The emancipation they are shaping with their own hands is an authentic one defined by their own needs, choices and priorities.
Yes, all of this is true. But it is also true that revolution may bring about a change in regime but not a change in deeply rooted attitudes towards women, not only in the Arab world, but here at home. Feminists in Egypt and Yemen have been working hard to bring about truly egalitarian change for many years. I support them and hope that their cause remains in the spotlight, because their cause is our cause.